The term biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyse human physiological or behavioral characteristics for authentication or identification purposes. Some of the most widely used characteristics or biometric factors are fingerprints, irises, voice patterns and the spatial geometry of the face.
To start with, let us explain why biometrics are needed more than ever. Physical access control, say to a building, is generally based on locks and keys, on badge readers or on few-digit pincodes which are easily lost or stolen by malicious individuals. Because for access control based on keys or badges the authentication factor is something you have, there is no real guarantee that the person entering your building is the individual that was granted access in the first place.